Excerpt from:
Kansas City and the Pendergast Legend by:  William M. Reddig
Copyright, 1947


Frank Nash and Harvey Bailey belonged to that weird company of public enemies that included
Fred (Killer) Burke, Machine Gun Kelly, Wilbur Underbill, Charles (Pretty Boy) 'Floyd, Adam Richetti and
Verne C. Miller. They were boys from the farms, small towns and cities of the Middle West, adventurous
spirits of an unsettled time. Floyd, Nash and Richetti came from Oklahoma, Underbill from Missouri. Miller
had been a sheriff at Huron, South Dakota. Bailey was a farm boy from Sullivan County, Missouri. He hid
Killer Burke on his mother's farm after the St. Valentine's Day massacre in Chicago in 1929, in which
Burke was one of the machine gunners, Burke was captured on the Bailey farm after he was identified
by a filling station operator from a picture of the killer in a detective magazine. * ,These dangerous men
were not identified with a city gang but moved over a large section of the country, demanding and
receiving protection from the underworld wherever they operated. At the time of his arrest in Kansas City,
Bailey was working in a large band that roved between St. Paul, Chicago, Kansas City and Hot Springs,
Arkansas, Individually the gunmen, bandits, kidnapers and killers of the road dwarfed the city type of
gangster, and their collective operations were beginning to make the fratricidal wars of the city gangs
look like a minor disturbance. They worked individually, in teams and in family groups, as with Ma Barker
and her fearful brood. They robbed and killed with their women. Clyde Barrow and his cigar-smoking,
pistol-packing mama, Bonnie Parker, fought their way out of a trap near Kansas City not long before they
were killed together in 1934 in a crime tour that took them over several states of the Middle West and
South. The gun moll was a familiar figure in the police showup (as Kansas City calls the line-up).
These men and women of old American stock made it all too clear that the lawless revival was not
confined to the congested centers where the foreign-born were segregated. They also made it clear that
crime had passed beyond the stage of local or state problem and had become a national peril.
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As you read the below account of the KC Massacre, keep in mind that Adam Richetti was tried,
convicted, and sentenced to death for the murder of KC Police Officer Frank Hermanson.  Adam
was executed on Oct 7th,1938

Here's what the sisters of Adam Richetti, Minnie and Eva had to say: "The boys just got involved
with some very bad people."

Here's what Mrs W.F. Floyd said of her son Charles A Floyd:  My son was not bad at heart.  "He
Has Reaped His reward"

Here's what the Nephew of Charles Floyd, Jim Lessley had to say:  "He had a good heart, and just
got mixed up with the wrong people."

As for what I believe.  After living with the aftermath of this story my entire life,  and it's impacts
on many of that era's family members,  unknowingly to me at the time I began a long journey
many years ago as a young kid that now has culminated after 30+ years of research.  I was told
the very basics then and until I was a young man in the late 70s was told the rest of the story.  It
was then I learned from Adam's sisters, my two Grandmothers, Eva and Minnie that in the end
Floyd and Adam had gotten involved with some very bad men, and didn't realize or understand
what the implications would be.  

After reading and reviewing thousands and thousands of pages of trial transcripts, Department
of Justice (FBI) files, numerous books, meetings with knowledgeable historians, and retired FBI
Agents, I found what the lawyers had failed to address in Adam's trial and technically what many
failed to write about or address in their research.   

Putting together the trial transcripts, eyewitness testimony, the autopsy reports, and the ballistics
evidence it's very clear that there is no way to connect Adam Richetti as the man who pulled the
trigger and caused the death of Kansas City PD Detective Frank Hermanson. There is no specific
witness testimony nor is there any ballistics physical evidence and what autopsy evidence there
is, is inconclusive at best as to what type of firearm or caliber it was that caused Det Frank
Hermanson's death.    Was Adam Richetti at Union Station that fateful morning, absolutely, there
is no doubt. The evidence is ample and clear. "Guilt by Association" and participation in the
Union Station Massacre is what convicted Adam Richetti.  The Federal Government relinquished
their case to the State of Missouri because they (U.S Govt) did not have enough evidence to
support a murder case. The Federal Government's options to try  Richetti at the time were,
Conspiracy to Commit Murder, the Dyer Act (motor vehicle theft) or Kidnapping, all allowing for a
max sentence of 2 years, $10,000 fine, and possible probation.  The U.S. Government stepped
aside to allow the State of Missouri to try  Richetti for murder.  The KC Grand Jury brought 4
indictments of murder against Adam Richetti for the deaths of KC Officers Hermanson and
Grooms, Oklahoma Chief of Police Otto Reed, and FBI Agent Caffrey.  

Adam Richetti's Grand Jury Statement:  Richetti had been brought to Kansas City from Ohio on
Nov 4th and interviewed for several hours by law enforcement.  Adam had stubbornly remained
resistant for many hours but then made a denial of his guilt and furnished no explanation as to
his whereabouts on June 17th, 1933, except that he admitted that he arrived at Kansas City which
he thought was Lee's Summitt, Missouri on the night of June 16th, 1933.  Richetti admitted to the
abduction of the Bolivar Sheriff Killingsworth and the abduction of Walter Griffin whose car they
hijacked to Kansas City.  At that point he claimed to have had a failure of memory.  Richetti stated
that Floyd had made contact with someone whom he didn't know and they left with that individual
in another car.  Richetti claimed that he and Floyd smoked marijuana on June 16th, 1933 and that
his claim of failing memory as to all the happenings on June 17th are evidently fictitious. Richetti
then said that they left Kansas City shortly thereafter and Floyd took him to Texarkana, Texas
where Richetti stayed but couldn't say where.  Richetti was then questioned as to his
possession of a Colt .45 automatic that was stolen from the armory National Guard in
Kansas City.  Richetti claimed that he had purchased the pistol from some unknown individual
months ago.  The Kansas City, Missouri  Grand Jury returned 4 indictments of murder against
Adam on November 5th, 1934.   

As you read the below account of the KC Massacre, keep in mind that Adam Richetti was tried,
convicted, and sentenced to death for the murder of KC Police Officer Frank Hermanson.  Kansas
City Ballistics Expert Merle Gill did a microscopic analysis of Officer Hermanson’s wound and
determined that it was caused by a single ball bearing from a shotgun.

Adam was executed on Oct 7th, 1938.  
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On June 7, 1933 Richetti and Floyd stolen a Pontiac Coupe from a school teacher in Cromwell,
Oklahoma. A week later on June 14th they robbed the Farmers and Merchants Bank of Mexico, Missouri,
of $1,628 and decided to head to Kansas City to meet up with Juanita and Rose.  On the way the car has
some mechanical problems and is towed into Bolivar and have it repaired.  On June 16th, Richetti
and Floyd abandon the car in Bolivar Missouri at the Bitzer Garage where Richetti's brother Joe is
employed as a mechanic. They take Joe's car, transfer some personal effects and a foot locker of
personal belongings and weapons and kidnap the town Sheriff Jack Kllingsworth and use him as a
hostage and guide to Kansas City, Mo.  Arriving in Deepwater, Missouri they commandeer another car
belonging to Walter Griffith.  Now with two hostages they head towards Kansas City.

While Adam and Charles are en route to Kansas City, there is a collaboration of phone calls from
Arkansas to Chicago to the Kansas City local mobsters and friends. A flurry of phone calls are made;
(Richard Galantas, Herbert Farmer, Esther Farmer, Louis (Doc) Stacci, Frank “Fritz” Mulloy, Mrs Frank
Nash, and Vivian Mathis all of whom where tried and convicted of conspiracy to free a federal prisoner,
serving 2 years to probation) to effect the rescue of their friend and one of their own, Frank “Jelly” Nash.
Now a Federal prisoner after being captured by the FBI in Hot Springs Arkansas early in the day of June
16th. Frank Nash is in custody en route to Leavenworth Prison via train to Union Station escorted by SAC
Joe Lackey, Agent Frank Smith and Oklahoma Chief of Police Otto Reed. The flurry of phone calls
continues throughout the day to Verne Miller so that he can make arrangements to affect the rescue at
Union Station.

At 5:00pm that afternoon of June 16th, Vi Mathis received a call at home from Fritz Mulloy wanting to
get in touch with Miller.  Mulloy ask to have Miller call him back right away. Vi calls the Milburne Golf
Glub and leaves a message for Verne, known at the club as Mr White to call home.  An hour or so later
Miller arrived home for dinner and tells Vi that their friend Frank Nash had been picked up in Hot Springs.

Around 9:00pm that night as Vi was putting her daughter Betty to bed when Verne left the house and
headed to the Horseshoe Tavern owned by Frank “Fritz” Mulloy.  Later that evening around 10:17pm Vi
received another phone call this time from Esther Farmer who was in Joplin, Missouri asking for Verne.
Esther then leaves a message with Vi which said; tell Verne “that party” left Ft Smith at 8:15pm.

Around 10:45 the night of June 16th, Floyd and Richetti arrived in Kansas City over the inter-city viaduct
in the Industrial District West Bottoms.  After stopping at a point on the road about a block away from his
contacts Floyd leaves Richetti in the car to keep an eye on Killingsworth and Griffin.  Floyd walks down
the road about a block away and enters a a nightclub making contact with local gang members and
acquaintances.  As Floyd walks in he is recognized by the nightclub owner Steve Oliver, the brother in
law of Dominic Benaggio.  Benaggio  also operated a gambling house known as the D&S Club on the
sixth floor of the Sexton Hotel on 115th West 12th St in KC.A few minutes later a Chevrolet Sedan pulls
up and Floyd and Richetti transfer their belongings and tell Sheriff Killingsworth and Walter Griffith to take
their car and go.  Floyd and Richetti accompanied by unknown occupants of the Sedan drive off.  They
had arrived the night before the Union Station Massacre purely by coincidence.   After a few more phone
calls, Benaggio notifies John Lazia and Miller that Floyd and Richetti are in town.  Lazia turns down Miller
with local help.  It is then Lazia and Miller decide to drive over to the West Bottoms to Missouri and Grand
at the local drug store where they meet Floyd and Richetti in the bar in the back.  It was there that Floyd
and Richetti agreed to assist Miller in the rescue, and where Miller borrows a machine gun from Lazia.   
Shortly afterwards Miller drives Richetti and Floyd to Union Station to case the area. While at the station
Miller makes a call to Mrs. Nash just a few minutes after midnight. Verne tells her she would see her
husband again and discusses various rendezvous points where she could be reached. Richetti is
recognized walking thru Union Station by a witness.    Miller, accompanied by Floyd and Richetti then
return to Miller's residence at 6612 Edgevale Rd, Kansas City sometime after midnight.  Verne Miller
and Vi Mathis had been living there under the alias of V.C. Moore at the time.


Sometime early on the morning of June 17 driving around the Union Station parking lot Miller, Floyd, and
Richetti observed a sign in the back window of a car, the sign reads Department of Justice.  A common
practice of Federal Justice Law enforcement at the time.  Miller’s car which was a 1933 Chevrolet Sedan,
License plate 482-329 was then parked approximately 40 feet directly in front or south of Agent Caffrey’s
car and facing West, with the engine running, and Richetti behind the wheel.  Floyd at the time was
standing on the running board facing the front of Agent Caffrey’s car with Miller standing close by
watching Nash as he was escorted out of Union Station.  

Later that morning about 7:10 am of June 17, Frank Nash was escorted off the train by 7 law
enforcement officials through Union Station out to the parking lot. The Head of the FBI's Kansas City
Office, SAC Reed Vetterli together with FBI Special Agent Ray Caffery, FBI Agents F.J. Lackey and
Frank Smith, and Otto Reed, Chief of Police of McAlester, Oklahoma, William Grooms and Frank
Hermanson of the KC Police Department.

Approximately 07:15am Agent Caffrey seats a handcuffed Nash in the front seat and has him slide over
to the driver’s side, this allowed the front seat on the passenger side to be flipped forward so that FBI
Agents Lackey, Smith, and Chief Reed could enter the back seat. Officers Hermanson and Grooms
stood beside the front passenger fender, as well as SAC Reed Vetterli.  As soon as Agent Caffrey had
opened the passenger door allowing the Agents and Nash in, he circled around the front (south) end of
the car on his way to the driver’s side door passing thru Officer's Hermanson and Grooms and SAC
Vetterli.

As the events began to unfold Miller positioned himself standing on the parking curb making him appear
taller than what he was and was peering over the front of the car parked to the West and next to Agent
Caffrey’s car.  Miller then commanded, “Up, Up Get Em Up” and says “Come on Frank”.

As Agent Caffrey approached the driver’s side of the car, Floyd stepped down from the running board of
Miller’s car and approached Agent Caffrey as he opened the driver’s door.     Once the command of “Up,
Up” and the demand for Nash is heard  KC Officer Grooms fires a pistol shot at Floyd.  (trial testimony
says witnesses heard at first 1 single shot) it appears that Agent Lackey sitting directly behind the
prisoner began to pull up the shotgun he was carrying to defend themselves.  

In that instant the .16 gauge shotgun loaded with buckshot (3 -.437 inch ball bearings each) goes off,
blasting thru the front windshield. (trial testimony says witnesses heard at first 1 single shot)  As soon as
the first shot goes off Floyd yells: “Let em have it” and Miller and Floyd begin to fire.  

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Here's where the prevailing theory floated by some comes in.  In that shot and one more subsequent
shot, Agent Lackey accidently kills Agent Caffrey, the prisoner Frank Nash, and possibly KC Officer
Frank Hermanson with a 16 gauge pump shotgun that he was not familiar with. Agent Lackey or KC
Officer Grooms possibly wounds Floyd in the shoulder and Miller in the right hand. The autopsy and
ballistics evidence in the original Bureau of Investigation files differ to some degree or are inconclusive
in  those assumptions. The information from these reports are from the Forensic Ballistician Merle Gill
and the Deputy Coroner Dr. C.G.Leitch Jackson County Missouri.  The file 62-760, dated 3-29-34, is
written by Special Agent W.F. Trainor.

After reviewing the file and comparing known pictures of the shooting I've attempted to piece together the
events based on those reports in a different manner rather than just repeat the usual narrative.  Here are
the details of the rounds found/fired taken from autopsy and ballistics reports.  The .45 caliber
measurement was done by my personal research.

.45 caliber machine gun = 0.451–0.454 inch = 11.4554 mm
Ball bearings = .437 inch = 11.099mm
2 each spent .16 gauge shotgun shells found inside Agent Caffrey’s car, 1 on the floor of the front drivers
side, 1 found on the back seat floor passenger side. Each shotgun shell (2) contained (3) ball bearings
each measuring .437 inch/11.099 mm. Ballistician Merle Gill indicated from a double-barreled shotgun.
1 ball bearing found near Agent Caffrey’s head, driver’s side ground.
1 ball bearing found near the gas pedal of the parked car immediately to the west.
7 -.45 machine gun shell casings from 1 machine gun  
1 -.45 machine gun bullet found from a second machine gun (no shell casings found)
1 -.45 acp shell casing fired from an automatic pistol
1 -.38 bullet  

7 officers were shot, of which 5 were killed,  4 with head shots, and 2 were wounded.

Killed:
1 inconclusive as to caliber, KC Officer Hermanson. 13mm entrance wound.  KC Ballistics Expert Merle
Gill did a microscopic analysis of Officer Hermanson’s wound and determined that it was caused by a
single ball bearing
1 questionable  as to caliber, Agent Caffrey ( ball bearing) 13mm entrance wound.
1 probable as to caliber, Frank Nash (.45 machine gun) No gunshot residue. 12mm entrance wound.
2 confirmed  as to caliber.45 machine gun/38 cal, Chief Otto Reed, 13mm entrance wound.
2 -confirmed as to caliber, 2 .45 machine gun rnds, KC Officer Grooms, torso/back. 12mm entrance
wound.
************* ********************************************************************************************************
Wounded:
3 confirmed wounded, 3 -.45 machine gun rnds, Agent Lackey, 1 right side 2 back, No measurements..
1 inconclusive wounded – SAC Vetterli minor left arm wound.
********* ***********************************************************************************************************
Miller's car which was a 1933 Chevrolet Sedan, License plate 482-329 was observed and parked
approximately 40 feet directly in front or south of Agent Caffrey's car facing West, with the engine
running with Richetti behind the wheel.  Floyd at that moment was standing on the running board facing
the front of Agent Caffrey's car awaiting to take action.

Miller 8 to 10 feet away was standing on the parking curb making him appear taller and was peering  up
over the front of the car parked to the West and next to Agent Caffrey's car.  Miller then commands, "Up,
Up Get Em Up" and and says "Come on Frank"..  

KC Officer Grooms then fires the first shot at Floyd as he stepped toward the front of the car wounding
Floyd.  Floyd then commands, “Let Em Have It" and Floyd returns fire  killing KC Officer Grooms.

KC Officer William Grooms - 12mm entrance wound. .45 to the torso right to left side, and .45 to the lower
back.

Agent Lackey had pulled up the shotgun to defend themselves fires off one round (3 ball bearings) of the .
16 gauge pump shotgun just past the left side of the prisoners head aiming for Floyd.  Missing Nash’s
head which is less than 2 feet away and blows out the front windshield on the driver’s side and hits Agent
Caffrey in the right temple with 1 ball bearing and possibly wounding Floyd in the shoulder, some reports
indicate that it could have been the hip or leg.

Standing near the left front door, fender, front window area; Caffrey was moved prior to where he had
fallen by the ambulance personnel. (Southeast side) Agent Caffrey - 13mm entrance wound right temple,
exit thru left temple .437 inch ball bearing found near head.  Also found in the near vicinity was a core
from a .45 cal machine gun bullet, thought to have been the core that passed thru Frank Nash.

********** **********************************************************************************************************
Miller had been standing near the front of the adjacent car fires a machine gun volley over the hood of the
adjacent car parked 5 feet to the west.  The next to fall were 2 officers standing near the front fender
passenger side (West side),   

SAC Reed Vetterli - minor wound to the left arm. Escaped to Union Station between cars on foot.
Unknown caliber slight wound to the left arm.

KC Officer Frank Hermanson – 13mm entrance wound, caliber unknown left side head parietal area front
to lower (occipital) area.  Possibly killed in the crossfire by the shotgun blast and one entrance wound
according to Merle Gill

SAC Reed Vetterli - minor wound to the left arm. Escaped to Union Station between cars on foot.
Unknown caliber slight wound to the left arm.
KC Officer William Grooms - 12mm entrance wound. .45 machine gun  to the torso right to left side,
and .45 to the lower back.  
KC Officer Frank Hermanson – 13mm entrance wound, caliber unknown left side head parietal area
front to lower (occipital) area.  

*********************************************************************************************************************
After Miller’s initial burp of the machine gun before Miller takes off at a fast pace to round the rear (north)
of the car. At this point it's unclear but possible that Chief Reed has also fired his shotgun.  Ballistics
evidence initially indicated two .16 gauge shotgun shells fired from two different barrels/shotguns.  
Either way a second shotgun blast did occur and comes out the passenger side which is directed
towards the front of the adjacent parked car. One of the ball bearings appears to have hit the window
frame post on the driver’s side.  A second ball bearing shatters the side window and shatters a portion of
the windshield directly in front of the steering wheel wounding Miller in the right hand little finger area.  
The third ball bearing is found on the floor near the gas pedal.   

As Miller rounds the rear (Northwest) of the parked car to the West he again opens fire and sprays the
backseat area. Within the multiple rounds fired at this instance 3 men are hit.

Agent Frank Smith sat in the middle of the rear seat and had ducked to avoid the incoming fire and was
not wounded.
Chief Otto Reed – 13mm entrance wound containing glass shards .45 cal/head rear right side/.38 cal
right temple/seated right side, back seat (passenger side West side)
Agent Lackey .45 cal /right side waist, ricochets off of his holster and enters his right side to lower back
area/seated left side, back seat (driver’s side, east side) He will eventually be hit 2 more times with .45
machine gun fire.
Prisoner Frank Nash - 12mm entrance wound to head slightly rear right side occipital area, exit wound
near left ear, no core found. .45 cal 1/2 jacket stuck to hairline/right rear head near the entrance
wound/seated left front driver’s seat, matching 1/2 jacket found on the driver’s side floor. (East side)
Ballistician Merle Gill indicated that the incoming .45 cal round  went thru the body of the car which
damaged the jacket causing it to split on impact of Nash’s head. A .45 cal core was found just outside the
driver’s door area which Ballistician Merle Gill felt was the core that killed Nash.  

********************************************************************************************************************
Miller continued to round the back of Agent Caffrey's car continuously firing from the road 15 feet
away until they reached the north east side. (Driver's side area)

Agent Lackey is shot, again 2 more times in the back, all from .45 cal machine gun rounds fired from the
rear of the car (North side) He is shot a total of 3 times and survives the assault.
Agent Caffrey has either already been shot thru the right temple from a ball bearing, or evidence on the
East/drivers side car indicates that it was hit by machine gun fire possibly by Floyd.   A .45 cal
core without the jacket was found just outside the driver’s door.  Ballistician Merle Gill indicates that this
could have been the core that went thru Frank Nash's head.

*********************************************************************************************************************
 
As Miller rounded the car, he approached the driver's side door, pulled a shotgun out of the car, and said;
"They are all dead". In less than 45 seconds, 5 are dead and 2 are wounded. The evidence of friendly fire
is inconclusive where Agent Raymond Caffrey, KC Police Officer Frank Hermanson, and the prisoner
Frank “Jelly” Nash are concerned.  KC Police Officer William Grooms killed by 2 .45 machine gun
rounds, OK Police Chief Otto Reed was killed by either a .45 machine gun round or a .38 pistol round,
both to the head.  Wounded were SAC Reed Vetterli unknown probable .45 machine gun round based on
his initial position, and Agent Joe Lackey, 3 .45 cal machine gun rounds sitting in the rear left passenger
seat.

Miller and Floyd hurried to the awaiting car with Richetti behind the wheel and sped off to the west
through town at a high rate of speed eventually returning later that morning to Miller's residence.
********************************************************************************************************************
Following the shooting at Union Station that morning of June 17th  and a wild fast ride, Verne Miller,
Charles Floyd, and Adam Richetti returned to the Miller residence around 9am. Miller awakened his wife
and told her that Fritz Mulloy would be by soon to take her and her daughter to the Mulloy Residence.
Sometime later that afternoon Verne phone’s the Mulloy residence and asks Vi to return home without her
daughter.

Vi catches a cab and on the way home from the Mulloy’s hears the news of the shooting at Union Station
that morning. Returning home Vi finds Verne and two other men whom she later identified as
Charles Floyd and Adam Richetti. Floyd had been resting in her daughter's bed nursing a minor wound of
the left shoulder which didn't seem severe enough to be treated. Vi notices that Verne had a small wound
to his right little finger. Later that day, Verne tells Vi that he, Floyd, and Richetti had used his Chevrolet
Sedan in making the trip to and from Union Station early that morning to get Frank and that there had
been some shooting and Frank had been killed. Vi had said that Verne was visibly shaken.  

Floyd had remained in the bedroom for the remainder of the day with the exception of Richetti who came
out from time to time for coffee. Vi served coffee to Floyd a couple of times throughout the day. Sometime
after dark around 7:30pm Miller left the house and sought out John Lazia.  Miller eventually ends up at
Union Station where he met John Lazia having dinner at “Harvey’s” with his men, Sam Scola,
Tony Gizzo, Charlie "Wopp" Corella and Charley Gargotta.  They held a discreet discussion within a few
hundred feet of the scene of the massacre that morning as Miller described the events and said that the
shooting could not be helped as the officers opened fire first. Lazia and his men were concerned about all
of the heat law enforcement would put on everyone.  Floyd and Miller had wanted to lay low in town for a
few days for Floyd to recover but Lazia arranged with Binaggio in getting Floyd and Richetti out of town
that evening. Lazia sends LaCapra's brother in law Sam Scola, Dominic Benaggio, Charley Gargotta,
Tano Lacoco, and Tony Gizzo to help escort Floyd and Richetti out of town  to Cleveland, Ohio where
they would meet up with Miller.

About an hour after Miller returned home from his meeting with Lazia, Benaggio showed up at Miller's
residence.  As he walked onto the front porch and knocked on the door, Miller tells Vi to move to the
bedroom.  After a brief exchange with Floyd and Richetti discussing Floyd's ability to travel, Benaggio
takes them to the Italian sector of town at the intersection of Missouri and Grand Ave.  There they meet
with Lazia  in the backroom bar of the local drug store and discuss with Floyd his ability to handle himself.  
Floyd and Richetti cross the street with the men who are escorting them and load their belongings.  The
car they used was a Buick Sedan which had been stolen from St Louis, Mo on April 30, 1933 by Ed
Wilhite and Jack Griffin and stored at the Trafficway Garage in Kansas City until needed.  Lazia ask
Charley Gargotta to stay behind and told him "Don't pay any attention to what I said, if anything comes up
stay back as far as you possibly can."  Within minutes they were gone. The original plan was to meet
Miller in Cleveland, changed as soon as Floyd and Richetti were out of town.  They had decided to head
to more familiar territory in Oklahoma.  The stolen Buick was eventually found on a secondary road about
20 miles from Cleveland closer to Akron.  Inside the car sitting behind the steering wheel was the body of
Nathan Gerstein.  Gerstein had been shot 4 times behind the left ear with a .38 pistol around 11pm on
June 23, 1933.  The .38 slugs were sent to KC for ballistics tests to determine if they were tied to the
Kansas City Massacre.

******************************************************************************************************************   
HERE'S WHAT THE STATE & FBI SAY:

STATE
: It was proven by the State that Richetti and Floyd had been in communication with Miller and
joined the conspiracy.   Richetti had admitted that he and Floyd had come to Kansas City about ten-forty-
five o'clock the night before the massacre at the end of a flight across parts of Missouri and Kansas in
which they had kidnapped Sheriff Killingsworth of Polk County and Walter L. Griffith of Clinton. The State
also proved there was a close underworld friendship between Verne Miller, his wife Vi and Frank Nash
and his wife . In an FBI interview dated Sept 30, 1934 Verne Miller's paramour Via Mathis states that on
June 17, 1933 that sometime during the day Verne remarked that he and Floyd and Richetti had used
his Chevrolet in making the trip to and from Union Station.  Sometime after dark Verne had left the
house by himself.  He was gone for about an hour.  When he returned someone walked onto the porch.
Vi had remained in the bedroom about twenty minutes and when she came out into the living room
Floyd and Richetti were gone.

STATE:  Richard Galantas, Herbert Farmer,  Esther Farmer,  Louis "Doc" Stacci, Frank “Fritz” Mulloy,
Mrs Frank Nash, and Vivian Mathis . Eventually all of the conspirators are identified tried and found guilty
of the attempted rescue of Frank Nash.  In addition Mrs. Frank Nash, and Vivian Mathis (Verne Miller's
paramour) were charged.  Mrs Nash testified for the government in return for her freedom. Vivian Mathis
plead guilty.  The conspirators were indicted by a Federal Grand Jury at Kansas City, Missouri, on
October 24, 1934 and convicted on Jan 4th 1935.

STATE:  It was proven by the State that Richetti and Floyd had been in communication with Miller and
joined the conspiracy.   Richetti had admitted that he and Floyd had come to Kansas City about
ten-forty-five o'clock the night before the massacre at the end of a flight across parts of Missouri and
Kansas in which they had kidnapped Sheriff Killingsworth of Polk County and Walter L. Griffith of Clinton.
The State also proved there was a close underworld friendship between Verne Miller, his wife Vi and
Frank Nash and his wife .

FBI:  In an FBI interview dated Sept 30, 1934 Verne Miller's paramour Via Mathis states that on June 17,
1933 that sometime during the day Verne remarked that he and Floyd and Richetti had used his
Chevrolet in making the trip to and from Union Station.  Sometime after dark Verne had left the house by
himself.  He was gone for about an hour.  When he returned someone walked onto the porch.  Vi had
remained in the bedroom for about twenty minutes and when she came out into the living room Floyd and
Richetti were gone.  

STATE:  According to the testimony of those employed or present in the immediate area of Union Station
say that there were at least 3 shooters.  Trial testimony of Eyewitness's and descriptions are somewhat
vague but consistent in identifying Verne Miller, Charles Floyd, and Adam Richetti.  While the identifying
testimony of Mrs. West and Agent Lackey is somewhat contradictory — and contradicted — and while
they doubtless were excited when they witnessed the massacre, that does not make their testimony
incompetent or incredible. During the trial, Verne Miller, Charles Floyd and Adam Richetti were identified
by eyewitnesses: Miller, by Federal agent Smith; Floyd, by agent Vetterli and Mrs. Lottie West, a social
worker for the Travel Aid Society at Union Station; and Richetti by Mrs. West and Agent Lackey.  Adam
Richetti had denied that he was in Kansas City "the morning day or night of Saturday, June 17, 1933," the
date of the massacre, and also denied that he had been at Union Station any time that day. That was all
of his testimony; he did not say where he was during this time. Sheriff Bash of Jackson County testified
that Richetti told him he came to Kansas City the evening of June 16 and left some time the middle of the
night or early morning, and that he was not in the city before or after these hours. Agent Lackey was
seated on the west side or driver’s side back seat of the officers' car. He saw one gunman standing
behind the next car west with a gun with a vertical grip pointed at them, and another man going north
from that point until he got to the back of the car.  

The back windows of this adjacent car were up but the front windows were partly down. Through
them  he could see the man's head and the part of his torso above the car body but not his hands or
weapons. His view necessarily was brief. Mr. Lackey said the man wore a brown coat, felt hat with turned
down narrow brim, and was dark complexioned; he gave an estimate of his height and weight which
checked pretty closely with that of Richetti; and he identified that man as Richetti.  Richetti and Floyd had
three pistols and a machine gun on the kidnapping trip according to the testimony of Killingsworth. They
used the same number and kind of firearms in the massacre the next day — Mrs. West said Richetti had
two pistols, and the defense witness Parman saw a man in the position where Mrs. West placed Floyd
firing a machine gun and a pistol.  Richetti and Floyd had three pistols and a machine gun on the
kidnapping trip according to the testimony of Killingsworth.  Sixteen months later when the law overtook
the two fugitives in Ohio they still had three pistols and a machine gun. One of these pistols, Exhibit 8,
and the machine gun, Exhibit 7, were definitely identified by Sheriff Killingsworth as being among those
in the possession of the outlaws on the kidnapping trip. The machine gun was substantially identified by
Agent Vetterli as one he saw Floyd shooting in the massacre. Ballistic evidence connected the pistol
Exhibit 8 with the massacre.  Trial and FBI files indicate there was ballistic evidence tending to prove that
an automatic pistol which Floyd had on the kidnapping trip and at the time of his death was used in the
massacre. Both these firearms were admitted in evidence along with a pistol which was found on Floyd's
body. But there was no ballistic or other evidence connecting the latter two weapons with the massacre.
This evidence taken together warrants an inference that the same three pistols and machine gun were
used on all three occasions by the known possessors thereof, Richetti and Floyd; and strengthens the
testimony of the State's witnesses identifying them as participants in the massacre.

The foregoing conclusion is based on the theory that the three pistols Exhibits 8, 9, and 10, all were used
in the massacre. While they were offered in evidence below, they have not been brought up to this court
for our inspection. Mrs.West testified one of the pistols she saw appellant using appeared in the sunlight
to be nickel plated.  If she meant to affirm as a fact that it was nickel plated and neither of the three
exhibits is, our theory would fall. But even so, we still think the pistol Exhibit 10 taken from Floyd's body
was properly admitted in evidence against appellant.

STATE/FBI;  Trial testimony and FBI documents indicate that twelve days after the massacre a Federal
agent and finger print expert, John E. Brennen, with other officers searched the vacant residence at 6612
Edgevale Ave in Kansas City where Verne Miller, one of the gunmen, had resided for over two months
before and several days after the homicides.
They found two beer bottles with latent finger prints thereon
which became visible when dusted with powder. This had some tendency to prove that Richetti during the
night of June 16 had been at the residence of Verne Miller, one of the killers.
 The bottles were
photographed in the presence of Mr. Brennen who found them, on the same day, and they and the
negatives were marked by him. He identified them at the trial, and said the finger prints were still on the
bottles.

FBI files indicate that by midsummer of 1933 the FBI suspects John Lazia’s rumored involvement in the
Kansas City Massacre.  John Lazia is killed in July 1934.   Verne Miller, Charles Floyd, and Adam
Richetti are implicated in an Aug 1934 .FBI interview with Jimmy "The Needle" LaCapra.  LaCapra
implicates his under boss John Lazia's involvement. Lazia had described how Floyd and Richetti
became involved with Miller and how they did the shooting.  Lazia had taken Floyd and Richetti to the
outskirts of town  after the shooting where they hid out for an unknown time.  
KC Massacre
The Untold Story

KC Massacre